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Why do molecules form dimer
the term dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts ) refers to two structurally similar parts (known as monomers) which are joined together through covalent or non covalent bonds/interactions. In a dimer, if the two monomer molecules are similar or identical (i.e. A-A), it is called as homodimer and if the two monomers are different (i.e. A-B), it is called as heterodimer. The dimer is present in large number of biological molecules or substances varying from chemicals, sugar, DNA and proteins.
Noncovalent dimers: When the interaction or chemical bond between two monomer in a dimer is non covalent, they are known as noncovalent dimers. Examples of this are carboxylic acid, acetic acid and water dimer in which two monomers are together held through hydrogen bonds.
Covalent dimers: When the interaction or chemical bond between two monomers in a dimer is covalent, they are known as covalent dimers. Examples of this are cyclopentadiene and diaminocarbene dimer.